Monday, December 5, 2011

Buttermilk Clusters

OK, it's been 2 months since I've bread blogged...  I've baked quite a bit since but I've just been taking the easy way out and posting (most of) the baked goods on Facebook.  Here's the latest:
Buttermilk Clusters:  (thanks to Floyd over at the Fresh Loaf website)

LINK: Buttermilk Cluster recipe    (if you're interested in trying this, let me know and I'll give you a couple of tips)

After the dough has proofed for about 90 minutes, it' cut up into 12 small balls and placed into a 10" spring-form pan
(click on pics to enlarge)

The dough is proofed again, this time for about 40 minutes while the oven is pre-heating.  The tops are brushed with an egg wash and topped with sesame seeds.  This pic below was taken 5 minutes into the bake.

The end result was a pretty darn good lookin' bread :)


Nice crunch to the crust and the crumb was light and fluffy. (and delicious too)

Monday, October 10, 2011

Reinhart's Pain Au Levain

UPDATE: I've had some amazing feedback on the "freshloaf" forum!

  • "Wow! I think it's beautiful and amazing!!  Great job!!"
  • "This really look good! Nice baking!"
  • "Is this your FIRST pain au levain?  Gosh....  Must say it's really impressive!
  • Look forward to seeing your second and third and many, many more. :)"
  • "That is an amazing start. I would be happy with that any day"


I have to admit that, while my results to date haven't been necessarily "bad", I was feeling a little discouraged...  This was definitely a boost :)





    My try at a Pain Au Levain (sourdough) actually came out well. No commercial yeast was used.  It is most definitely not a quick process though...

    Day One:

    SOURDOUGH STARTER
    ⅓ cup (2.5 oz / 71 g) mother starter, cold or at room temperature
    1 cup plus 2 tablespoons (5 oz / 142 g) unbleached bread flour
    ⅔ cup (3 oz / 85 g) whole wheat flour
    ⅔ cup (5.35 oz / 151.5 g) water, at room temperature

    The starter is not difficult to put together; you just have to "watch" it.  It needs to sit at room temperature for 6 to 8 hours.  After that, it goes (covered) into the refrigerator overnight.

    Day Two:
    DOUGH
    All of the sourdough starter (16 oz / 458 g)
    1 cup plus 6 tablespoons (11 oz / 312 g) lukewarm water (about
    95°F or 35°C)
    2¼ teaspoons (0.25 oz / 7 g) instant yeast (optional)
    3½ cups (16 oz / 454 g) unbleached bread flour
    2⅜ teaspoons (0.6 oz / 17 g) salt, or 3½ teaspoons coarse kosher
    salt

    This is a fairly high hydration dough; around 75%, but (somehow) I managed to handle it well and didn't end up a sticky mess.  There were two stages of stretch and folds that dramatically improved the handling.  I didn't use any flour; just a lightly oiled surface (and hands).  When completed, the dough sat covered at room temperature for 2 hours followed by refrigeration overnight.

    This morning, I let it sit at room temp for about 4 hours before forming it into a boule to proof.  Proofing was another two hours.  When I transferred to proofed dough to my peel, it immediately flattened out and I think this might due to a combination of possible over proofing and the higher hydration.  I scored the top and transferred the dough to a baking stone in an oven pre-heated to 500F.  Once the dough went in, I lowered the temp to 450F.  Steaming took place within the first five minutes.  While it looked like I was going to end up with a inedible pancake, there was actually some oven spring.   

    The crust is good and the crumb is much better than any of my previous attempts at artisan bread.  It's fairly open and chewy but melts in your mouth.  The flavor is also a lot better than I thought it would be (I was afraid it would be too sour).  All in all, not too bad.

    As you can see from the pics, the dough more than doubled in size.  Looks like my starter is pretty good after all.



    It's a bit flatter than what I think it should be but I still like the way it turned out.


    PJ

    Tuesday, October 4, 2011

    100% Whole Wheat Results...

    This recipe is a keeper!  Even though it's 100% whole wheat, the bread has a moist, soft crumb and the flavor is fantastic (especially toasted with some butter on it :) ).  I would have liked to have seen a little more height but, all in all, I'm very happy with the results. I think the next batch will come out even better...   I'm also going to try one loaf using my sourdough starter in place of the biga and compare loaves.

    Sunday, October 2, 2011

    Let's Try a 100% Whole Wheat (Updated 10/4)

    While I've made breads with 25% whole wheat, this will be my first enriched bread using 100% whole wheat flour.  For the record, I'm using King Arthur red whole wheat flour which is "milled from 100% of the hard red spring wheat berry grown in the norther Great Plains.  Nothing is added, nothing is taken away."  :)


    I've just finished putting together the first two parts of the dough (which will be baked tomorrow)

    • Soaker:  The Soaker is made up of 227 grams of WW flour, 198g of scalded milk (cooled) and 4g of salt.  The soaker is used to soften the coarse grains and also allows some enzyme action to take place that is beneficial to the flavor of the final product.
    • Biga: (or pre-ferment) The Biga is also made up of 227g WW flour except it has 170g of water (75% hydration) and 1g of yeast (no salt).   Pre-ferments are also used to bring out additional flavor and (I believe) improve gluten structure. 
    I'm using a Biga for this one however, if I want, I can substitue the biga with my sourdough starter (same total weight).  I think I'll give that a try next time.

    Both of these are extremely easy to put together.  All that's needed are two small bowls and a heavy wooden spoon.   The little kneading that's done is actually done in the bowls.  The 5 minutes of rest after the initial mix of the soaker and the biga (ensuring all the flour is hydrated) is all that's needed to make them very easy to handle.

    The soaker will stay out at room temperature overnight.  The biga will go into the refrigerator for at least 8 hours (this will retard the fermentation).  Tomorrow, I'll cut both the soaker and the biga into small pieces (so they'll be easier to mix together) and pop them into the mixer along with 42g of honey, 14g of unsalted (melted) butter, 7g of yeast, and 5g of salt.   An additional 56.5g of WW flour will be on hand should the dough need any adjusting (so it's smooth and just slightly sticky)

    Update:  I left the "biga" out two hours prior to the final mixing (to warm up).   I flattened out the biga and the soaker, placed one on top of the other and cut the lamination into 12 pieces.  I put the cut pieces into the KA mixer along with the other ingredients (less the salt  as I wanted the yeast to hydrate first) and mixed.  I then added the salt, mixed on "2" for approximately 7 minutes while adding 1 additional tablespoon of WW flour in the process because the dough was a bit "sticky".  The recipe does allow for 56.5g WW flour (7 tablespoons) in reserve for adjustments.  


    The dough was turned onto a floured surface and hand kneaded.  I'd say that I added approximately 3 to 4 more tbs of flour in order to get the right consistency (just slightly sticky / tacky but somewhat firm).   Now that I know what it should feel like,  I'll just check the dough in the mixer while making any adjustments.  I rested the dough for 5 minutes, kneaded it for another 2 minutes or so, formed it into a ball and put it into a (covered) greased bowl (I use Pam).


    The dough took about an hour to almost double in size.  I then flattened the dough out to about a 5" X 8" rectangle, rolled it up and sealed the bottom edge (not the sides).  This was placed (seam down) in a grease loaf pan to proof for about 45 minutes, until it rose above the sides of the loaf pan.  I may give it a little longer next time...


    The oven was pre-heated to 425F and immediately lowered to 350F once the pan was put in the oven.  It baked for 20 minutes, was turned 180 degrees (something that's really unnecessary for my oven since it bakes so evenly) and baked another 20 or so.   When done, the internal temperature should be 195F and sound hollow when tapped on the bottom.   Always leave the bread on a cooling rack for an hour before tasting so the baking process can continue.  Not an easy thing to do :)


    I'll triple this batch next time :)


    See you tomorrow!

    PJ




    Saturday, September 24, 2011

    Latest Bread with the Sourdough Starter

    This is a version of Hamelman's Pain Rustique using a 50% poolish with a 20% SD starter and an autolyse for 20 minutes before adding in the yeast and the salt.
    Note to self:  a portion of the starter was retained (55g) and 110g flour and 110g water was added.  Stick with the 20% starter next time but only use 55g flour and 55 water (to see how it affects the flavor).  Also retard the bulk fermentation in the frige overnight.

    Totals:

    • 600g flour
    • 414g water (69%)
    • 12g salt (2%)
    • 1.5g yeast (.25%)

    I decided not to use the mixer on this one.   The initial dough (after autolyse) was very sticky.  As a result, I sprinkled flour through the stretch and folds and the final kneading.  All in all, I went by "feel"...  I added flour as I kneaded until the dough was "tacky" but not very sticky.  While the original formula is a 69% hydration, this was probably a little less.

    I let the dough rise for 1.5 hours (until doubled in size).  I formed it into a tight boule and proofed it in a basket for 30 minutes.

    Baked in an oven preheated to 525F for around 30 minutes (first 5 minutes steamed) then lowered the oven temp to 375F for the final 20 to 30 minutes.  Nice color, fantastic oven spring (best yet) and better crust.  The crumb, while nice and flavorful with a pleasant chewy texture, was a little dense (but then again, this was not a very high hydration dough).  It's very good but just not as tangy as my previous (un-posted) loaf.

    All in all, I think I handled this particular dough better than any of the previous ones I've made (and formed it better).

    Hey, looks good and tastes good so it's a success :)

    click the pic to enlarge



    The Sourdough Starter Lives On...

    I showed my wife my starter yesterday.

    Me: "This is the sourdough starter that I  made two weeks ago..."  "I've been feeding along the way..."

    My wife:  "Did you give it a name?"

    Me: "Uh, no... "

    My wife:  "Good answer"

    Photo just after feeding:

    About 4 or so hours later:

    Nice and bubbly:
    Bread to follow :)

    Saturday, September 17, 2011

    Sourdough #4

    I'm trying a different recipe that is loosely based on Hamelman's "Pain Rustique".  This one uses both a sourdough culture and commercial yeast.  I decided to go this route because, while I'm sure I can do it, the straight sourdough process just takes too much time.  Attempt #3 wasn't bad (very flavorful and tangy but not much in the way of oven spring).  This post is about #4.

    For this formula, a poolish is made with 40g of WW flour, 180g of UB AP flour, 225g water and10 grams of sourdough culture.  Once mixed, it's covered and kept at room temperature overnight (approximately 12 hours).  This morning it was nice and bubbly and smelled great!

    I then mixed the poolish with 80 grams of water and 225g UB AP flour for only about 2 minutes; just enough to hydrate the flour. The result is one "shaggy mess" as Hammelman puts it...  I then covered it and let it sit for about 30 minutes.  This is called the "autolyse" method.   As the hydrated flour "rests", enzymes are at work (most notably protease) breaking down the protein in the flour.  The result is a stronger gluten development and better structure without having to do a lot of kneading (which can result in oxidation causing reduced flavor and color).

    After the autolyse, the salt and yeast are mixed in and a 2 minute stretch and fold is performed (see my video link page for a demonstration).  Again, there is very little work involved in the process but the results are dramatic.  This process is repeated 3 times with about a 20 to 30 minute rest in between.  After this, the dough is placed in a covered, greased bowl for bulk fermentation until it's doubled in size.  However, since I knew I wasn't going to be able to bake until late this afternoon, I decided to retard the bulk fermentation and place the dough in the refrigerator overnight.  Retarding the fermentation also helps improve the flavor complexity of the finished product.  Note:  The dough can stay refrigerated for several days so you can make up a large batch and bake fresh bread every day if you like :)

    This afternoon, I let the dough warm up a bit on the counter, eventually formed it into a boule and then proofed it for 20 to 25 minutes.  This appears to be (for me) the ideal amount of time since the ambient temperature of my kitchen is pretty stable.

    I scored the top and transferred the bread to my baking stone in an oven pre-heated to 550F.  Steaming took place within the first 5 minutes.  At the 15 minute mark, I lowered the oven temp to 465F and baked for an additional 15 to 20 minutes.

    I didn't slash the top quite as deep as I would normally as I was afraid I'd deflate the progress made during the proofing.  Still looks OK though.  I'll probably stick with the higher temperature for a bit longer in order to get a darker crust color and a little more "crunch" to the crust.


    The crumb is perfect.  Light, airy with a wonderful flavor and just a hint of a sour tang to it.  After a couple of disappointing results, I really needed this one :)  OK, time for another slice!

    Wednesday, September 14, 2011

    Sourdough Bread (back to the drawing board)

    I've had two attempts at a sourdough bread this week and both had disappointing results.  I can tell you that making one of these breads is no quick process.  I've seen recipes that call for bulk fermentation times of up to 15 hours and proofing times up to 7 hours.

    Try #1: Looked "OK"... While the crumb was too dense, the flavor of the bread was, I thought, very good.  Very tasty with just a little bit of a sour tang to it.  The crumb felt a bit "heavy" and chewy with the first bite, but it dissolved nicely in the mouth.  I think this is what they describe as "creamy" or "gelatinous".  Not sure.  

    Try #2:
    I added a little commercial yeast to this one to speed up the process.  My bulk ferment and proofing times were way off (too long) and the end result was a very pale, ugly looking loaf with a very dense crumb.  

    I'll try this or another recipe this week and see how it goes.  I'll have to pay particular attention to the bulk fermentation and proofing times.  


    Saturday, September 10, 2011

    Sourdough Excitement!

    OK, maybe I need to get a life but I can't wait to make a "Pain Au Levain".  My sourdough starter looked great and I just used Reinhart's book to turn the culture into a "mother starter".  Here's how it's come about:

    The culture:                            (click on the pics to enlarge them)

    I then took 1 cup of the culture and added more flour and water

    I let this sit to ferment at room temperature for about 4 hours or so...  I actually should have put this is a larger container because it doubled in size (and almost popped the lid off it).  

    I now have a "mother starter" or "barm".  It's in the fridge at the moment and tomorrow I'll use a portion of it to make some bread.  It's a wild yeast starter, so nothing "commercial" will be used as leaven for my bread.

    This is going to be a trial and error kind of thing.  While I've read quite a bit on this subject,  this starter is supposed to "mature" over time (with some careful attention given to it).  There's a lot of microbial action taking place here between yeast and bacterial growth.   How the starter is maintained and how much of it is used in a dough, so I've read, greatly impacts the flavors and acidity level of the finished product.  Again, I have no idea what I'm doing but the results I've seen so far are very positive :)

    Tomorrow, I'll fill you in on the process of making bread with this stuff.  It's definitely is going to be a longer process but I'm anticipating some great finished product results in both texture and flavor.   From this point forward, no new bread recipes.  I'll stick with this one until I learn more from each result.

    Friday, September 9, 2011

    Sourdough Pizza

    I used some of the sourdough starter to make another small batch of pizza dough.  I didn't use any yeast at all.  The dough took a little longer than usual to double in size, but it did rise!  I can't believe it worked :)

    This time, I pre-heated the grill with the baking stone in it.  I popped the pizza on it and closed the cover (with all the burners on "high").  It really came out great!  The crust was really tasty and the bottom, though very thin, was nice and crunchy.  Perfect pizza.

    click on the pic to enlarge it

    Sourdough Starter Experiment (Update)

    Looks like I'm definitely on the right track with my sourdough starter!  Here's what it looked like this morning (after 60 hours)

    Very nice and frothy with a clean, sour aroma

    I removed the two grapes I had in there and "fed" it with another cup of flour (AP UB white this time) and another cup of water.

    I just checked on it and, in just an hour, it's looking very active.  I'll give it a couple of more hours, cover it and put it in the fridge overnight.  I'll repeat the feeding for the next 48 hours.  After that, I should be able to maintain this starter for years :)

    Baker's math

     So here's the rub...  Say you find a good recipe but it uses enough flour to feed a third world nation.  What to do?  It's easy... just scale it back :)

    I bought a cheap digital kitchen scale a couple of weeks ago and now do all of my measuring by weight.  I don't really think this is absolutely necessary but it does make scaling recipes easier.  There's nothing worse than trying to re-calculate cups, tablespoons or teaspoons (these are ridiculous units of measure :) ).   In my "formulas" or recipes, all of the weights of ingredients are in % of the total flour used (flour being 100%).   This  "baker's math" sounds like it will be complicated at first but it's actually very easy.

    Example:  A Sourdough Pizza recipe (I'll try this next week with the SD starter I'm in the process  making).  As you can see, this uses a lot of flour; something like 5 or 6 cups I think.  Way too much...


               Ingredient                  Amount            Baker's %

    • Filtered water:               550 g               65.5%
    • Unbleached AP flour:    850 g             100.0%
    • Sea salt:                           30 g                 3.5%
    • Dry yeast:                        2.5 g                 .25%
    • Sourdough starter:          60 g                 9.0%


    Look at the Baker's % column.   I want to make one pie and I'm thinking 150 grams of flour (about a cup) should do it.  To calculate the amounts of the other ingredients needed, I simply do the math based on the baker's % shown above:


    Flour: 100% = 150 g
    Water: 65.5% = 98.25 g (this is the hydration level)
    Salt: 3.5% = 5.2 g
    Starter: 9% = 13.5 g
    Yeast: .25% = .375 g


    The result is a smaller batch but one where each "ingredient to flour ratio" is identical to the original formula.  


    If you remember the ratios, all of the amounts of ingredients can be calculated based on how much flour you are calling for.  So, if you're down to your last bit of flour and want to use it all up, doing so is a snap using Baker's Math. :)



      



    Wednesday, September 7, 2011

    Whole Wheat Boule #3

     While the last two breads I made were a 62% hydration,  this 25% whole wheat dough was adapted from Hamelman's "pain rustique", a 69% hydration.  I decided to go with a higher hydration dough in order to get a more "rustic" looking crumb.  I'm just trying to work my way up to a 75% hydration level.  This is going to take some practice though as the higher hydration doughs are pretty sticky and this newbie has found them difficult to handle.  However, I'm definitely seeing some improvement in this area.

    Last night, I made a poolish (a pre-ferment) with:

    • 150 grams of (red) whole wheat
    • 150 grams of AP unbleached flour
    • 300 grams of water
    • Just a pinch of yeast
    I let this sit covered at room temperature for about 3 hours to ferment.  Before I went to bed, I stirred the (now almost doubled in size) poolish and put it in the refrigerator.  When I took it out this morning, it was still showing a lot of activity (looked and smelled great).  I left it covered on the stove top for a couple of hours in order to get the chill off it.  From there, the final dough was relatively easy to complete.  I mixed the poolish with the balance of the flour and water and let it rest (autolyse) for about 20 minutes .  When the autolyse was completed, I added the yeast while mixing and, after I thought the yeast had enough time to hydrate, I added the salt.

    I used the C hook with the KA mixer on 4 for approximately 4-5 minutes until the dough was just slapping in the bowl and a window pane test showed there was good gluten development.  I then transferred the dough into a lightly greased bowl and did 3 sets of stretch and folds with 10 minutes rest between each set.  From there, the covered bowl was put in the oven to bulk ferment until it doubled in size (took about 90 minutes).  I formed it into a boule (for the first time, I had no problem doing this quickly / properly :) ) and placed it seam up into a covered proofing basket while I pre-heated the oven to 550F.  By the time the oven was pre-heated,  the dough appeared to be perfectly proofed (finger poke test).  I didn't even have a problem scoring the top of the boule before baking.

    Note: Steaming takes place during the first 10 minutes or so of the bake.  The steam keeps the top of the bread moist so it can facilitate oven spring (without "blowing out").  This higher initial oven temperature is needed to compensate for the temperature loss caused by opening and closing the oven door during steaming...

    Unlike the last two breads, I put the baking stone on the very bottom rack and the pan (for the water / steaming) above it.  I only did this because, on prior breads, the bottoms did not brown quite as much as I would have liked.  Ah, but there were consequences...  
    • #1: As I added the water to the pan,  I spilled some of it and it landed on the baking stone (good thing the stone didn't break) and on part of the bread. (no harm no foul)
    • #2: The baking stone was now WAY too hot this time and it most definitely burned the bottom of the bread a little too much (not a disaster, but something to remember for next time).
    In addition to the water added to the pan in the beginning of the bake,  I also sprayed the walls of the oven twice within the first 4 minutes.  When I was done steaming, I cut the oven temp back to 465F and baked for 25 minutes.  After that, I reduced the oven temperature to 375F and let it bake for another 20 minutes.   The oven was then turned off and the bread was kept in the oven, with the door ajar, for an additional 10 minutes (to help improve the crust).

    OK, here are the final results:

    While higher hydration doughs kind of flatten out when they're removed from the proofing basket, I was very pleased with the oven spring I got during the first 10 minutes or so.  On the surface, the bread looks pretty good.  (at least it doesn't look like an alien :) )
    (click on the pic to enlarge)

    Looking at the crumb, large irregular holes are what I was aiming for but, for some reason, parts of the crumb that were still too dense.  I think that, prior to forming the boule, I should have punched the dough down more in order to redistribute the yeast and break down some of the much large pockets.  I'm not sure.  I'll have to post this on the bread forum and ask.  The bottom line is it smells and tastes great to me and I really like the texture of the crumb.


    Next up will be some nice cinnamon rolls drizzled with icing :)


    Tuesday, September 6, 2011

    Sourdough Starter Experiment

    I've wanted to try making a sourdough bread, but to do so, I'll need to first make a sourdough "starter".  While this requires a bit of time to accomplish, the effort involved is minimal.  In a bowl I mixed:

    150 grams whole wheat flour
    150 grams water
    about 10 (crushed) green grapes

    Firstly, we need to know just what makes a sourdough bread dough "sour" or tangy.  The starter I'll be making will be the product of both bacterial and wild yeast growth in the "media" of water and flour I've mixed.  There is an incredible, symbiotic relationship between the lactobacillus bacteria (that will hopefully grow) and (wild) natural yeast.  Since the byproduct of the bacterial growth is lactic acid, the pH of the water / flour mixture will, of course, be low.  This (conveniently) prevents the growth of commercial yeast, as in active dry yeast, yet creates the perfect environment for the wanted "wild" forms of (saccharomyces) yeast.

    The flavors produced through the growth of the beneficial bacteria and wild yeast depend on the environment in which it is grown.  For instance, something produced on Long Island could have a very different taste than something produced in another state or another part of the world.  The cool thing is that this starter can be kept indefinitely as long as it's "fed" periodically with more flour and hydrated with additional water.  Sourdough starters were actually kept by early settlers as they made their way westward (and Lord knows that took some time :) ).  I've read where some starters have "lived" on for over 100 years!  (Just Google San Francisco sourdough bread).  Therefore, one's starter is really the "signature" of one's bread.  Mine will either be cursive or an "X"  :)

    OK, why the green grapes you ask?  There are many recipes for starters and this is just one of them.  From what I've read, the frosty white "stuff' on grapes is actually a natural yeast.  Hopefully, the grapes will help to get my starter going quickly.  Time will tell.  Success or failure will be evident in a couple of days.

    Edit 9/7:  Since I'm using grapes to help make the starter, the yeast variety won't be "native".  However, as I keep this starter going, the native yeast(s?) will eventually take over...


    Here's what it looked like just after mixing.  I'll leave this covered with a towel at room temperature for the next 48 hours (stirring the mixture occasionally at least twice a day).  There's the possibility of seeing some fermentation activity at the 48 hour point, but it could very well take much longer...   In case there's any doubt, I have absolutely NO idea what I'm doing :)

    Edit 9/8:  It looked like I was getting some fermentation action within the first 24 hours so I tried to get the grapes out of the starter.  I then realized that I REALLY crushed the grapes instead of gently crushing them :)  Now I had to figure out a way to pick all the grape pieces out of the bowl.  I managed to strain this glop (eventually) and added another 1/4 cup of WW flour and 1/4 water.  Over the next 12 hours I saw no activity at all so I just put two (whole) grapes in the "starter".  So far, I haven't seen as much as a bubble (but that wouldn't be unusual).  Might take another day or two.


    Thursday, September 1, 2011

    Survived 4 days without power...

    Hurricane Irene did a number on Long Island and LIPA still has people without power (since last Sunday morning).  We were fortunate in that our power came back on yesterday and, as an added bonus, we even got back cable / internet late last night.

    During the outage, I took the opportunity to visit our local library and was pleased to find Reinhart's, "The Bread Baker's Apprentice" and "Artisan Breads Every Day".   I've been reading the BBA.  This is an excellent book that explains everything you need to know to make some really good bread. (eventually :) )

     The Bread Baker's Apprentice"

    One of the first recipes I looked at was for an "Anadama" bread; a classic bread out of Rockport Maine.  Legend has it that a fisherman's wife always made her husband porridge and molasses; something he wasn't pleased with.  Depending on who tells the story, she either left him for another man or simply wasn't home.  He found the porridge and uh, got ticked off.  He threw some flour and yeast into the corn meal and molasses porridge, popped it into the oven and said,  "Anna damn her!"  LOL  It was a hit with the locals :)

    Anadama bread story

    Well, this dough started out last night as a "soaker", where the corn meal (or polenta if you like) was soaked in water to soften it.  This morning, I mixed part of the flour with the yeast, water and corn meal mixture, covered it and let it pre-ferment for about an hour.  The instructions said, "or until bubbly" and mine was certainly bubbly by the time the hour was up.  Once the pre-ferment was ready, the remaining flour, salt, molasses and shortening (unsalted butter) was mixed in to form the dough.  After a couple of minutes in the mixer, the dough was still very sticky (tacky is OK but sticky isn't OK for this dough).  So, I ended up adding a couple of teaspoons of flour (little by little) to get it right.

    After mixing for some time, it still didn't appear to have a very well developed gluten structure, so I decided to do some stretch and folds, rest, and S&F again.  It really is amazing how doing something so simple for a short amount of time can have such an immediate impact on the dough and it's gluten structure.  It literally changes before your eyes.   Once I was satisfied (or so this newbie thought), I put it in the oven to bulk ferment.  The instructions said 60 to 90 minutes (or until doubled in size).  I looked at mine after an hour and it was more than doubled.  (Did I leave it in too long?)

    All in all, I ended up with a dough that was pretty easy to handle and form.  I can't explain it but it felt just "right".  Now, since these were going to go into 9x5 loaf pans (first time I've used loaf pans), I didn't think it was THAT important to get the forming done perfectly.  Ah, but that was a newbie error :)

    Turns out the bread had a nice "oven spring" within the first 10 min or so and, it looked like I hit a home run.  However, one of the loaves basically flattened at the top and the other did so partially.  This was either due to improper forming or possibly over-proofing.  I'll have to look into it but I'm leaning toward the forming.

    This is what the loaves looked like after proofing in the pans (one in stoneware, the other aluminum).  At this point I thought they looked just fine.


    Here you can see how the one in the aluminum pan gained some nice height within the first 10 min of baking

    But darn it, not too long after, I took a peek and found it had "collapsed" a bit.  I was pretty disappointed...   The other one in the stoneware did the same but only on one side.



    Here's what the crumb looked like:


    I think the unevenness of the holes in the crumb was just due to my own inexperience at working / forming the dough after bulk fermentation.  Aesthetics aside, the crumb was nice, light and chewy and had a pleasant "sweetness" to it.  I used "Grandma's Molasses" but not the light variety the recipe called for.  I guess this resulted in a "stronger" flavor of molasses, but I really liked it.  The crust (sprinkled with corn meal) had a nice crunch to it.


    So, not a total failure after all.  Tastes great and I've learned that much more for the next time.  I'll look through the book, read some more, watch a couple more instructional vids online and do another bake in a day or two.  :)

    UPDATE: The responses to the above post on "The Fresh Loaf" forum confirmed my initial "diagnosis" on the finished product.  The dough was most likely over-proofed on the bulk ferment and most  definitely over-proofed prior to baking.  I'm pretty certain I know what to look for now.  Unfortunately, I took the original instructions too literally.  Live and learn :)   I think I'll try this particular bread again, but cut the molasses amount in half and substitue it with some honey.
    PJ

    Thanks!
    PJ

    Saturday, August 27, 2011

    Whole Wheat Boule #2

    After some nice feedback and advice from Syd at the The Fresh Loaf forum, I mixed up another batch of the 25% WW bread formula I've been working on.  My only (very small) complaint about the last boule was the crust.  It just didn't stay "crunchy" for long.  As a matter of fact, it lost all of it's crispiness while it was on the cooling rack.  This, I was told, is caused by not driving off enough moisture during the bake; the steam from the inside simply moistens the crust and softens it as the bread cools.  Turns out that I may have done a couple of things to contribute to that...

    This batch was exactly the same as the last one i.e., ingredient weights, mixing speed, kneading time, overnight retarded bulk fermentation, etc...  However, I paid particular attention to the proofing of the dough after forming it into a boule.  Every 5 minutes I did the "finger proof test" while the oven was pre-heating so the oven would be ready (this time :) ) when the dough was ready.  I was able to see / feel the changes in the dough over time.  At around 20 minutes, (after poking my finger in the dough) it sprang back slowly while still leaving a small indentation.  This must have been just right because the oven spring for this bread was even better than the last one (that I thought I over proofed a bit).

    I also played with the baking temps / times a bit to see if this improved the crust.  I'll get a pic of the crumb up later but I'm sure it's going to be just fine.  I proofed the dough in my $1 proofing basket lined with a textured towel dusted with flour (to get the cool markings)  Neat huh?  :)

    Make sure you click on the pic to enlarge it  (the iPhone sure does take awesome pics!)


    Here's a shot of the crumb...  tastes great!


    Thursday, August 25, 2011

    Another Whole Wheat with some changes...

    I've actually had 2 whole wheat breads since my last bread baking post.  The "baguettes" were not particularly pretty, but they tasted fine (especially when used as pizza).

    The bread after the "passable" baguettes was also 25% whole wheat but at a 75% hydration with a preferment (100% hydration poolish of whole wheat).  Unfortunately, my skill level is nil when it comes to forming any shape when the dough is that sticky.  I ended up with a nasty looking baguette and something more akin to a ciabatta than a batard.  Both took too many tries to form, were most definitely over-proofed and the results reflected it.  In my newbie attempts to date, these were my only two true failures.

    Last night I put together a 62% hydration dough using the 25% / 75% whole wheat flour to white.  The fermentation took place in the fridge overnight (around 12 hours).  This was so much easier to form into a boule!  I let this proof after forming for about 40 minutes (while the oven pre-heated).  The finished bread looked wonderful.  This is the only one I've made so far that had a nice oven spring.  I used a combination of normal bake and convection bake at different oven temps  (to control the color of the crust).    Here's what it looked like:

     Now the crumb was, as I expected, somewhat denser than the higher hydration doughs I've made but it was not "heavy" if you know what I mean.  I'm guessing that the addition of the olive oil makes it that way.   While I did steam the oven for 15 minutes or so and sprayed the bread / oven 4 times during the bake, the crust was not as "crunchy" as I thought it would be (although it had a very gentle crispiness to it).  The flavor however was exceptional!
    I guess I'll keep working on this particular hydration until I get the hang of handling it.  All in all, I think this one was was my best to date.  I'll stick with a winner for now. :)

    Here's the formula (I didn't completely fill out the form, but you'll get the idea:

    Sunday, August 21, 2011

    What to do with all the bread tests???

    Here's some leftover whole wheat I made the other day.  Sprinkled it with some olive oil and garlic powder

    Next, top it with some sliced tomato and parmesan cheese
     On top of that, some grated apple smoked pepper jack cheese (outstanding cheese btw), sliced onion and mushrooms

    Baked it up nice and toasty...   I have to admit that I basically ate all of it in one shot :)


    Tuesday, August 16, 2011

    I'm feeling a little better about my progress to date...

    Some recent feedback on The Fresh Loaf regarding my "pain rustique" post  (scroll down or click on the following link: )
     PJ's "pain rustique" post
    "The uglier the better for Pain Rustique, at least. I think those look rather fantastic. Good job!  ...Your Pains Rustiques look better than mine, and I'm supposed to know what I'm doing..."
    I also received the following email...
    "Very nice bread. This one is harder than most people think, but yours turned out very nice. I think the strength of your poolish made a major contribution. I was also impressed with your design worksheet. Is this your own creation or is it available somewhere?   Keep up the good work!"
    Needless to say, I'm very encouraged by the comments.  Especially from people who have been doing this a while :)

    PJ

    Monday, August 15, 2011

    My first post to a real "Bread Forum"

    I put this one up on The Fresh Loaf , a site that certainly appears to be THE definitive place for bread baking enthusiasts: Here's a link to My forum post so you can see the comments if you like.  Otherwise, just take a peek at this:
    Since my first attempt at a pain rustique didn't fair well, I decided to give it another shot today.  I mixed my poolish last night (100% hydration) but ended up having to t'fer it to a larger bowl very early this morning (put it in one that was way too small for some reason).  I have to say, the wonderful fragrance that leaps from the bowl when you first remove the plastic wrap from this stuff is just incredible!  Here's what it looked like after 13 hours:
    Here's the formula that I calculated based on Hamelman's pain rustique.  I simply typed in my figures into a  "design worksheet" pdf along with my notes.  I guess I got it right considering the end result :)
    I proofed 900g of dough in a 8" X 10" X 3" homemade banneton (cost me all of $2).  After 20 min I inverted it onto a peel.   I had trouble scoring (as usual).  The dough, while manageable after the stretch and folds, was still pretty sticky so the knife tugged on the surface of the dough.  Maybe this will be easier after I get my lame this week.  After my pitiful scoring, the dough somewhat deflated...
     
    However, after just  10 minutes (at 465F on a stone), it seemed to perk up a bit.  I did pour a cup of hot water into a pan on the bottom of the oven for steam as well as sprayed the top of the loaf and the oven walls (twice).
    I continued baking while keeping an eye on the color... at 40 minutes, I decided to take it out.  The internal temperature was 205.  Overall, this one looked the best to me.  No "singing" was heard but there was a lot of nice crackling going on.   (The oval shape somehow got a little distorted getting it from the proofing basket to the peel)
    The crumb came out better than any of my other breads.  It smells and tastes great but I'm wondering just what the "bite" of the crumb should be like?  This has some resilience to it; chewy but not tough and it does dissolve in the mouth nicely.  Is it that I'm tasting good bread for the first time or did I screw this up and simply produce bad bread?  :) )
     
    Here's a cross-section of an end piece.  The larger air pocket has a bit of a sheen to it.  I've read somewhere this is a good sign?
     One would think that making bread would be relatively easy but I'm learning that's not necessarily the case :) Well, that's about it :)  Thanks in advance for any advice or comments.
    Po Jo 
    I'll post any interesting comments on this blog (should I actually get any :) )

    Saturday, August 13, 2011

    Will have to do this again next week...

    When I first completed the mixing, I had an extremely wet dough...  I've mixed doughs with 67% hydration but this one was way too wet for something that was supposed to be 69%.  I then realized that I looked at the wrong piece of paper when weighing out the water and added too much.  I figured out how much of an error I'd made and added enough flour to keep the right ratio of flour to water and tighten up the dough.

    I thought everything looked and felt pretty good after the stretch and folds and even after I completed the first rising.  I was really encouraged when I checked the proofing of the dough after 30 minutes, it was (I think) actually (for the first time) perfect.  The finger poke test gave me a spring back but still left a small indentation.  Unfortunately, I hadn't pre-heated the oven yet (Ahhh....).  By the time the oven was ready, the dough was definitely overproofed.  It did not look or react the same to a finger poke.  Bummer.

    I baked them at 450F on a pre-heated stone and actually ended up with some nice color (different than my other breads) and a good crunchy crust.  The crumb, on the other hand, was denser and heavier than anything I'd made before.  I don't know how to describe it.  The flavor was fantastic (I guess that's the result of the poolish) but to me, the crumb texture was just disappointing (although it's still darn edible :) ).  


    Trial and error.  Learn a little more each time.  Back to the drawing board :)  Hopefully, the "alien" bread was better than this :)

    PJ

    Will try a "Pain Rustique" this weekend...

    I'm working with Jeffery Hamelman's "Pain Rustique" dough formula from the book, "Bread: A Baker's Book of Techniques and Recipes".  This particular bread formula calls for the use of a pre-ferment or "poolish" from the French for Polish (as in Poland not Pledge).  A poolish is a 100% hydration meaning it calls for mixing equal parts of flour and water to a batter-like consistency.  A very small amount of yeast (just .2% of the flour weight) is dissolved in the water prior to mixing.  It's kept covered, at room temperature, for 12 to 16 hours.  This is then used as part of a batch of dough. Once it's ripened, it looks like this...
    A wonderful microbial dance has taken place overnight and produced a beautiful, bubbly concoction with one incredible aroma!  I can't begin to describe how great this smells. The poolish, so I've read, will improve the "extensibility" of the dough (to be easily stretched without retracting to it's original shape) and add to the flavor of the finished product.

    I've been working with batch sizes using around 600 grams of flour (I know how much bread that will make) so, to determine the amount of ingredients needed, it's just a matter of some simple math.

    The formula for a 69% hydration dough (like this rustic bread) looks like this...
    640 grams flour
    442 grams water (the water weight is, duh, 69% of the weight of flour)
    12.8 grams salt (or 2% of the weight of the flour)
    3 grams (or so) of activated dry yeast (about .5%)

    Since my poolish used 300 grams of flour and 300 grams of water (100% hydration), I simply subtracted those amounts from the amount needed for my total batch.  So, I only needed to add 340 grams of flour and 142 grams of water to my poolish, yeast and salt, to make sure the ingredients were proportioned correctly.

    Doing everything by weight really makes converting batch sizes very easy.  For instance, Hamelman's formula called for a total batch weight of 17.1 kg, enough for around (22) 1.5 lb loaves of bread. (just a wee bit more than I'd like to make :) )  Since everything is done in % of the weight of the flour used, I simply needed to scale this down to a more manageable batch size.   I've got it rising at the moment in a covered bowl in my oven (my oven, as well as my dough temperatures, are about 78-79 degrees; optimum temps).  I've already done two "stretch and folds" (see my "videos" page) at 20 minute intervals.  I can tell you that, while it's the highest hydration dough I've made to date, it's very manageable (and the aroma is like... wow!)

    To be continued...
    PJ

    Thursday, August 11, 2011

    Alien Bread

    After we had dinner, I went to get Larry and Jackie's bread out of my car.  While I had it in a paper bag,  I forgot to close it up.   God only knows what the humidity did to the crust :)  This is the first time I haven't been able to analyze a finished bread so it's a little scary.  Like sending a kid off to school on his own for the first time (hopefully not to get eaten)  Well,  maybe it turned out OK.

    Larry called it the "Alien Bread".  Darn if it doesn't look like an alien :)  Hmmm... I definitely have to work on my scoring technique.  Will have to buy some razor blades this weekend :)  Using a sharp knife isn't (excuse the pun) cutting it.

    Bread was on the next to lowest rack in the oven on a baking stone pre-heated to 450F.  One cup of water was added to a pan on the first rack for steam.  The bread and the oven sides where sprayed with water in the first minute.  Two minutes later, I did the same thing.  Baked it for 15 minutes and lowered the temp to 375F (the loaf was getting a nice golden brown color at the time). Unfortunately, I was afraid it might take longer than normal to bake (and we had to leave by 5pm) so I put back to 400 after about 15 minutes.  The bread baked for a total of 50 minutes.  Color was darker than I would have liked, but it smelled pretty darn good and it seemed like it would have a nice crunchy crust.  Still not getting a lot of "spring" in the oven (although it definitely did spring more than the last one)  so I'll cut down on the proofing time on the next batch and see.


    Larry and Jackie and bread... oh my ;)